Pheromones - Do Male Pheromones Affect the Way Women Feel?

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Do Male Pheromones Affect the Way Women Feel?

In addition to investigating the effect that male pheromones have on women's hormones and their brain activity, researchers have also studied whether pheromones affect women's moods and perceptions.

The primary difficulty in evaluating the impact of male pheromones on emotions and perceptions of women is that these factors are subjective. That is to say, unlike hormone levels and brain activity as measured by sophisticated scanning techniques, they can't be objectively measured.

Pheromones Another difficulty in this type of study is that they tend to use extracts from the underarms of men. They include a number of substances that are believed to function as pheromones: androstadienone or AND, androstenol, and androstenone. As you'll see below, these substances seem to have conflicting or opposite effects on women's perceptions, making it difficult to attribute a response to any one male pheromone.

In one of the earliest studies of the effect of male pheromones on women's moods, samples from the underarms of men were applied to the upper lips of women. The men had refrained from using deodorant for four weeks, presumably because the antibacterial properties of deodorant can inhibit the conversion of secretions from the apocrine glands in the underarm into the pheromones androstenol and androstenone.

(While application to the upper lip might sound like a bizarre ritual, it mimics the circumstances under which pheromones transfer from men to women. An extended period of contact is usually involved-and the women wore the pheromones on their upper lips for six hours. The application directly under their nostrils also ensured that their brains received a continual stream of chemical messages. Finally, pheromones often transfer from men to women via direct skin contact, through shaking hands, hugging, or even a casual kiss of greeting.)

The women were unaware that the substance they were testing was male pheromones; they believed it was a household product that was being readied for the market. In any event, they were asked to rate their moods during a six-hour period. The women reported feeling calmer and more relaxed.

A similar study applied androstadienone to the upper lips and necks of women and gave them a series of psychological tests that lasted for two hours. The tests were tedious, and women who received androstadienone maintained their initially positive mood far longer than did women who received an inert control substance.

In another study, both men and women wore masks to which androstenol had been applied. They then rated photographs of strangers. Women represented in photographs were perceived to be more attractive, sexier, and friendlier than when rated by people who were not exposed to androstenol. The men pictured were perceived to be more warm and approachable.

The same methodology applied to another substance that's part of underarm secretions-androstenone-revealed that women rated their own mood as less sexy while evaluating pictures of men.

Do pheromone-influenced perceptions results in more sexual activity?

The only study that seems to document this connection found that men who used a male pheromone product for six weeks experienced more sexual behavior involving a female partner than did men who didn't use the product. Objections to this study include the fact that the chemical formulation of the pheromone product-and even what male pheromones it contained-was not disclosed. The results of this study have not been duplicated elsewhere.

amie Reese, scientific researcher specializing in the fascinating area of human pheromones has created the most effective formula that positively affects a women's desires. Get a free report on this scientific breakthrough at
Thomas E. Carrico


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